By Brendan Moore
Last updated: May 2012
Here we go after the question of what is the best price/value ratio achievable when you’re buying a used car. That is, the most value you can extract for your hard-earned money in the used-car market. It’s not that hard for us to come up with a fairly large list pretty quick, but we follow cars and the car industry obsessively, so it’s to be expected.
But what about the average buyer? As its been pointed out, their needs are great, and they don’t have the same amount of time to spend on this question, nor the same quality of data available to them. Since I’m obsessive about used-car pricing data, I did a short list from which to pick from, as kind of a quick “cheat sheet” for potential used-car buyers. I go to the auctions, I know the leasing residuals, and so forth. And, so here we go.
There are a few assumptions in these mental calculations that I used to develop this list.
One, you want at least a good car, hopefully a very good car, and possibly a great car as your choice. There will be no bad cars on this list. No matter how low the price, driving a lousy car isn’t worth it. Life is too short.
Two, the ideal candidate for the list is a good car, which for whatever reason, just wasn’t popular with buyers. Maybe it was polarizing styling, maybe it was a little under-powered compared to its competitors, maybe it just never got enough marketing support from the parent company, whatever. Whatever the reason, this made the residual value of the car fall off a cliff immediately. So it’s still a good car, but it’s now worth only, say, 50% of what its segment competitors are worth when its four years old. That’s the one we’re looking for; that’s the one with a great price/value ratio. As an example, very few Japanese cars will make this list, even though they’re great cars, at least in terms of durability; and that’s because their residuals hold up steadily after purchase as a new car so no real “bargain” possibilities there. You typically get what you pay for when you buy a used Japanese car; no more, no less. We’re trying to get you more than what you paid for with the cars on this list.
Three, the cars on the list still have to be in the NADA book, or, for our readers in the western coastal states, the Kelley Blue Book. Two reasons for this: we want our readers to be able to at least look up the car’s retail book value as a guide while they’re shopping, and two, if they need to finance the used car, that’s a lot easier to get done with your lender if the car is still listed in the book. By the way, you may have noticed that I differentiated between the NADA book and the Kelley Blue Book, specific to geography. That’s because only dealers and their used car managers in the West Coast states (CA, OR, WA and parts of AZ) use Kelley Blue Book; everyone else in every other state uses NADA (and also Black Book, and a data feed from the auctions, but consumers can’t get those).
Now, those of you that are repeat visitors will notice that we took some cars off the list this month. Conversely, we added some vehicles. Why? Because the deep recession, combined with the resurgence in new-car sales over the past 3 months, has played havoc with used car pricing lately. All (used) vehicles have climbed in value recently. This is particularly true with cars, and even more true with fuel-efficient cars. The Japanese small cars (Honda Civic, Mazda3, Nissan Versa, Honda Fit, Hyundai Elantra, etc.) have soared to new heights at the auctions. VW Golfs and Jettas are very high at the auctions. Conversely, used SUVs and pickup trucks have come up from their historically low used values, but they’re still not healthy, even though sales of new pickup trucks are quite healthy. So, some of those have been added, although you should bear in mind that a “bargain” used vehicle for most people is usually not one that drinks gasoline like a sailor drinking beer on shore leave. Gasoline is going up and should hit $5 a gallon for regular this year without much trouble, and, many people are still worried about their jobs in addition, and therefore want to spend as little as possible everwhere, including fuel costs.
Just one more thing on a related subject: People often say to me, “Oh, I don’t want a used car, I want a “green” car. I want to point out that from an overall “green” perspective, a used car starts off way ahead of any new car in terms of your personal environmentally-sound lifestyle by virtue of the fact that all the energy and raw materials used to make that car happened sometime ago. It doesn’t get any greener than a used, late-model economy car. It takes a long time to work off those production costs to the environment when you buy a new car; those costs have been mitigated considerably in a used car by the service life previously rendered. Think about it. The costs to the environment are not just how much fuel it consumes while you’re driving it, or how much pollution that driving produces.
OK, now onward.
New car sales are finally and steadily picking up again, but there is going to be a long lag between new car sales starting to get better, and, used car inventories nationwide recovering enough so that values are not artificially high.
So, that’s it; let’s get started, shall we? These cars are not in any order of preference or greatest “bargain” ranking, and by no means constitute a complete list. These are just some of the cars which are used car bargains. We’ll try to add more as we go along. And if you think you have a worthy vehicle for the list, let us know – maybe it will show up on the list next month.
Pontiac G8 – This was a a tremendous value for the money as a new car, and now the price-to-value ratio just gets better. It’s not just a used car – the Pontiac brand is no more since 2010, making the G8 an orphan used car, which always guarantees a drop in value as a used car. Read a review of the G8 as a new car here.
Pontiac GTO – See G8 above.
Mitsubishi Galant - Great rankings by J.D. Power, if that is meaningful to you, better, in fact, than the rankings Toyota and Honda owners give to the Camry and the Accord respectively. But Mitsubishi has a poor dealer network, poor brand recognition/image, and so the new ones that do get sold go at at a discount. The used ones suffer further indignity in the used car market, with residuals plummeting far below the other Japanes brands. But all that means is that it is a very good deal as a used car.
Ford Fusion - C’mon, it’s a Mazda6. Which is a very nice car. This is not the new Fusion that’s out now, but the pre-2010 model. But the Fusion doesn’t hold its value the same way as the Mazda because of the Ford nameplate, even though I personally think the Fusion is a better-looking car. And in case you haven’t noticed, Ford has really jumped up like crazy in the quality surveys in the last couple of years, so the only rap on this car is the Ford badge, really. Did I mention it gets good fuel economy?
Buick Park Avenue - Embrace your inner geezer and take a long look at the Park Avenue as a used car buy. They’re breathtakingly cheap for what you get, their build quality is very high, and so is their J.D. Power reliability ranking (No 1 as of March 2009), most of them have low miles because they’ve been owned by older folks, and they also get pretty good fuel mileage. The cars are just about bullet-proof and raely break, but they do have a certain stodgy image, so you’ll have to get past that.
Jaguar X-Type - Well, this wasn’t much of a Jaguar, and the consumer market figured that out pretty quick. But its a hell of a Ford Mondeo, the car its based on, and the Ford Mondeo is a a pretty good car. You get AWD, an upmarket cabin, a nice 3.0 liter six-cylinder that puts out 227 hp, and good handling and brakes. The new car warranty on these cars was long and comprehensive, which is a good thing if you buy one a couple of years old. Available in a sedan or a wagon, with the wagon going for less comparatively in the secondary market. Both the sedan and the wagon are real bargains as used cars, since their value plummets when they go over the curb as new cars, and did I happen to mention that Jaguar has excellent quality, according to J.D. Power? This is the sort of used car bargain that we live for here at Autosavant.
Saab 9-7X – Like any other Saab in terms of depreciation since Saab went under, except worse. This is the GMC Envoy/Chevy TrailBlazer after it went to a boarding school run by a Swedish headmaster. Better suspension and a better interior than the SUVs from whence it sprang, but still a big ‘ol SUV. Saab’s core customers turn up their noses at this vehicle, and so do traditional SUV buyers, so lots of bargains to be had in the secondary market.
Mitsubishi Diamante – Stupid name, good car. Poor sales made it go away from the Mitsubishi lineup and jeez-louise, are they cheap as used cars. Most Diamantes were sold pretty well-equipped when new, which makes it even more of a bargain as a used car. This V6-powered sedan is as good or better in most respects as the other Japanese sedans sold at the same time, but the Mitsubishi Diamante had one huge liability those cars didn’t – it was sold by Mitsubishi and had a Mitsubishi emblem on the car. Your gain.
Pontiac Vibe – Same vehicle as the Toyota Matrix, but with different exterior metal and a Pontiac badge on it, which makes it worth less to most people. Why? Too long an answer to go into here, but it really doesn’t matter; what matters is you can buy a used Toyota Matrix for quite a bit less than a used Toyota Matrix. And the Toyota Matrix/Pontiac Vibe is a good little car – great with fuel, park it anywhere, can carry a lot of stuff, and if you live where it snows you can get an AWD version of it. And of course, even if it has the Pontiac nameplate on it, it is still a Toyota, and therefore you be confident of the build quality and vehicle durability.
Saturn Aura - Saturn has gone away forever, and this costs far less than a Toyota Camry and is much better-looking and a much better performer. Comes with a 3.5 liter V6 and a 3.6 liter V6 – the 3.5 has less power but gets better fuel mileage. A very good car that just never found its footing in the market, and now is beset by association with an orphan brand, and you can be the one that takes advantage of that fact.
Saturn Astra – great little hatchback that is the Opel Astra in the rest of the world, and since Saturn has left this world as a brand, an incredible bargain as a used car. This car gives the VW Golf fits in the European market (it’s that good), but American buyers, of course, turned their noses up at it. See the review of the Astra when it was new here.
Jeep Commander – Its big, its square, it gets terrible gas mileage, it’s expensive and it has none of the charm of the Grand Wagoneer it was supposed to evoke. New ones sat around on Jeep lots for a long, long time before they went away, and that was with the help of hefty rebates. Used ones go across the block at way, way behind left-hand book (wholesale value) on a consistent basis. Lastly, the Jeep Commander, much like the Chysler Aspen, is the answer to the question that fewer and fewer consumers were asking when it came out; that is, where I can I buy a huge, thirsty SUV? But, it is well-built, and if you looking for this sort of vehicle, this is under-priced in the secondary market. All of these things make the used Commanders a good used vehicle buy now and in the future should you desire an SUV. And you won’t be fighting off a lot of other potential buyers when you start discussing the transaction.
Volvo S80 – First of all, imagine a Buick designed, engineered, and screwed together by Swedish people. That’s an S80, basically. High build quality, extremely safe, luxurious, lots of room and an inline six cylinder, either turbocharged or regularly aspirated. But, it wasn’t a winning formula for Volvo, and it’s a used car bargain because it was very expensive when new, and as a used car, it has certainly found its price plateau in the secondary market. And, of course, since it’s a Volvo, it will likely do a LOT of miles after you buy it as a used car.
Audi A3 – Great car, but Americans in most parts of the country still are NOT digging the the whole hatchback vibe. Unlike the rest of the world, Americans (except in a few metro pockets) didain the hatch bodystyle. So you get a bargain on this model as a used car. However, please note that I typed “most parts of the country” feel negative towards the hatchback; there are some metro pockets where the used Audi A3 is desired, places like Seattle, San Francisco, NYC, etc. I think you probably get the idea. But in most geographic areas, you can get a very good deal on the A3.
Lincoln LS – Both the V6 and the V8 model are bargains, and the LS is a very good car that just never resonated very well with the typical Lincoln customer. The car seems more German than anything when you drive it, and they made it all the way up to the 2006 model year, so plenty of time to get any quality bugs out. Not stunning to look at, but attractive in an understated way.
Chrysler Crossfire – OK, first of all, you’ve got to like the Art Deco fastback looks. I’m a fan, but a lot of people are not. So, let’s run through it: polarizing design, major mechanical bits and platform from the last generation Mercedes-Benz SLK, 3.2 liter 215 hp Mercedes V6, body built by Karmann, original MSRP approximately $32,400 – $42,000. As a used car, the Crossfire must be sought-after, right? Wrong. This small fastback coupe has never found the audience that Chrysler thought it would, and that ripples out into the used car market as well. This is a nice little car, not a sports car, but certainly a sporty car, and lots of fun to drive around. It’s almost all Mercedes-Benz, so it should be much more durable than the typical Chrysler product. It is worth mentioning, however, that this coupe is very cozy inside and really is made for drivers that are under 6 foot tall and do not possess an overabundance of avoirdupois. The space limitations extend to the trunk – the space back there is laughably small. The word at the wholesale auctions is that these cars usually go over the block at behind left-hand book (that’s wholesale to you civilians) and almost always have low miles, so there should be a pretty good deal waiting for you somewhere in the United States on a Crossfire.
Saab 9-5 – This is the previous-generation model we’re talking about; great car that always just plummeted in residual every year. The looks are not for everyone, although I personally find it attractive. The interiors are very nice with a high level of amenities. The 9-5 wagon is even more of a bargain than the sedan. A 3-year old 9-5 is a tremendous bargain.
Saab 9-3 – Saab just couldn’t catch a break in the market, could they? I suppose that’s why they went under. The 9-3 did not have as dizzy a fall in resale value as its big brother, the 9-5, but since it starts at a much lower price, many more people can afford it. Great price/value ratio here. The 9-3 Combi, in particular, is incredibly compelling since the bankruptcy announcement, if you need a wagon.
Mercedes-Benz C-Class Coupe – these are the hatchback models of the Mercedes-Benz C-Class sold in the U.S. until 2005. Same platform as the C-Class sedan, but in a 3-dr hatchback. Mercedes couldn’t make them go away fast enough as new cars and so decided to stop importing them. The American public’s aversion to a luxury hatchback is pervasive in the used car market as well, so that makes these cars bargains. Almost always in four-cylinder guise, which gets very good fuel mileage, but the C-Class Coupe was offered with the six-cylinder engine in the last three years of importation, although hardly any were ordered by dealers, and therefore not many were sold. As a bonus, since these cars don’t have all the electronic stuff on them that made M-B’s quality reputation go into a swoon since the late 90’s, this is probably the most reliable car sold by Mercedes during this period.
Mazda RX-8 – Hey, another Japanese car already! I love this car, and so does almost everyone who has one, but Mazda has not been able to find enough takers for the car since its debut a few years ago. The combination of very tight quarters inside, the rotary engine, love/hate styling, no-excuses sport suspension, and the fact that it’s a coupe to start with have limited the potential owner’s pool somewhat. It’s a bit thirsty for gasoline as well. Wow, what a car, though. And you also get Mazda’s superb build quality in the deal.
Buick Lucerne – This is a good car, and Buick has long had very good build quality, and it drops like a rock after it goes over the curb at the local Buick dealership.
Buick LaCrosse – See Buick Lucerne above.
Ford Five Hundred – This is a very, very good car, but the Five Hundred had two problems, one large and one small. The small one is its looks – they’re not bad, they’re just kind of Euro-bland, although personally, I like the Five Hundred’s looks much, much better than some of its segment competition at the time. I think it looks like a large Previous-generation Audi A6. And this certainly looks better than the re-style (and re-name to Taurus) subsequently shown to the public and produced for a short time until the new Taurus debuted last year. Of course, if bland mattered, then Toyota and Honda wouldn’t sell very many cars at all, would they? The large problem is horsepower, specifically, not enough of it. The Five Hundred has only 203 horsepower, which would have been great 10 years ago, but is now decidedly sub-par when the competition is all around 250+. However, it’s got a lot of great features, its attractive inside; it does superbly (5 star rating!) in the crash tests, handles well, gets great fuel mileage, etc.
Ford Taurus – see Five Hundred above, but with different styling, and a better powertrain. Not the new Taurus that came out in the last couple of years, but, rather, the interim Taurus that was really the Five Hundred with some freshened sheet metal. Residuals are awaful, so that makes it a good used car buy.
BMW 7-Series – The most expensive BMW and always used as their technology flagship, the 7-Series has always suffered from very poor residuals compared to the 3-Series cars. I’ll give you a mind-boggling example:
2004 BMW 330i new – approx. $39,000 MSRP (typically equipped)
2004 BMW 745i new – approx. $76,300 MSRP (typically equipped)
2004 BMW 330i clean retail (80k miles) value now – approx. $14,225
2004 BMW 745i clean retail (80k miles) value now – approx. $16,900
The 740i is much larger, has many more luxury features, more safety equipment, and has a powerful V8 engine, but not a lot of difference in the price now as a used car, is there? I know guys that buy used 7-Series one after the other – everyone thinks they have money, but they don’t. They just know the used 7-Series BMWs are an incredible bargain.
BMW 5-Series – See above, but not to the same extent, although still a pretty good bargain for the segment and price range.
Oldsmobile Aurora 4.0 – The flagship of the defunct Oldsmobile line, the Aurora was intended upon introduction in 1996 to lead Oldsmobile out of its sales slump. Unfortunately, as we all know, that didn’t happen. However, that doesn’t erase the fact that the Aurora is still a fine car, even if it is forgotten already. Built to a high quality standard on a stand-alone production line, and using some of the best parts of the massive GM inventory (i.e., a 250 HP version of the Northstar V8 from the Cadillac division), the Aurora is screwed together pretty darn well. Add in what many consider to be attractive looks and above average performance and you have a winning combination. And even if you pay full retail, which you won’t, you can buy this car for far, far less than the price of a new Toyota Corolla. FYI – the V6 Aurora is quite a deal, as it looks identical, gets much better fuel economy, even if the engine just isn’t anywhere near the beauty that is the Northstar.
Jeep Cherokee Limited – Tough and makes no apologies for what it is, this is the square, old-style Jeep Cherokee that Chrysler continued to produce for several years after it was supplanted in the Jeep lineup by the Grand Cherokee. This a rugged off-road SUV that’s extremely capable in bad terrain and merely OK to drive on the highway as opposed to the current cushy poseur SUV vehicles and their equally ridiculous “lifestyle aspirational” owners you see in every shopping mall and office park. Chrysler made minor improvements to the Jeep Cherokee every year, which made this vehicle quite dependable, since nothing big changed, as well as somewhat of a bargain in the sport utility market segment. Chrysler had planned to keep doing the above until at least 2005 model year, but those plans were cut short by DaimlerChrysler’s cash crunch in 2001, and the Jeep Cherokee ceased production in this, its last year. As a used vehicle, the Cherokee is even more of a bargain and prospective buyers should be able to pick one up for way under wholesale on any dealer lot.
Saturn L Series – Saturn’s large car, with both a 4-cylinder and a six-cylinder engine available. The four-banger, although dependable, sounds like a tractor engine and is pretty low on power, but it does get very good fuel economy. No matter which engine, these cars plummeted in value quickly, and thus are on this list. They’re good cars, not great cars, but the build quality is very good. The driving experience is what is lacking. It’s all just kind of a snooze – think early 90’s Camry or Accord. But they are quite durable, if bland, and you can buy one used pretty cheap, and so here we are.
Full-Size SUV – Doesn’t matter which one as every one of them has fallen off a cliff in terms of resale value, though we’ve noticed an uptick in recent months as fuel prices have moderated. Do the math on your expected fuel costs, though, and if you’re going to keep it for more than a couple of years, you might want to do that math using $6 as the average cost per gallon a few years from now.
Full-Size Pickup – See “Full-Size SUV” above.
HOW TO SPOT USED CAR DAMAGE
We are reprinting this press release from CarMax about how to spot used car damage because we think it might be useful to our readers:
RICHMOND, Va. (April 28, 2008) – Most consumers do not know the biggest warning signs indicating a vehicle may have been in a major accident, according to a poll conducted by CarMax, Inc., the nation’s largest retailer of used cars.
More than 70 percent of respondents said that repainting the car is the strongest indicator of vehicle damage. According to CarMax’s knowledgeable car-buying professionals, however, clamp marks on a vehicle’s frame are the biggest sign that the car may have been involved in a serious collision.
“A car might be repainted to address cosmetic issues rather than a serious accident,” said David Claeys, purchasing manager for CarMax in Richmond, Virginia. “Paint work isn’t as big of an indicator as clamp marks on the frame of the vehicle. People should be sure to do their research and look beyond a paint job when buying a used car and consider several other factors in order to spot hidden signs of prior vehicle damage.”
The following are the results of a carmax.com “Quick Poll” where 4,837 carmax.com visitors were asked to identify the strongest indicator that a car has suffered serious vehicle damage.
Indicator Percent of responses
Clamp marks 18%
Bumps and dents 8%
“Used car shoppers need to be on the look out for signs a car may have been in a bad accident, as the safety and resale value of the car may have been compromised,” said Claeys. “Cars that have had severe structural damage can be completely repaired, retitled, and sold to an unsuspecting buyer. Minor fender benders often do not compromise the integrity of the vehicle and are not as much of a concern.”
CarMax’s car buying team recommends the following tips to help determine whether a used car may have been in a serious accident.
Look for clamp marks on the frame rail under the car. Clamp marks look like holes or gashes on the frame of the vehicle. Clamp marks usually indicate that the car has been on a frame machine, which suggests the vehicle may have been in a serious accident.
Check the bolts used to fasten fenders, doors and the trunk lid to see whether the paint is broken or bolts are turned, which could indicate the bolts were removed for body repairs to the vehicle.
Peel back the fabric that lines the trunk and look for welding marks or body filler, which may indicate that repairs were made on the body of the vehicle.
Look for signs of repainting on the car, such as inconsistency in the paintwork or paint on the molding or gaskets. Run your finger along the inside of the door edge and see if the finish is smooth or rough. A rough finish can be caused by overspray during repainting. If signs of repainting are found, ask additional questions to determine if the paintwork was for minor scratches and dents or to cover up more serious vehicle damage.
Listen for any engine noise when you test drive the vehicle. A major accident can cause damage to any part of the engine. Ask questions about any noise that sounds unusual.
Check to see if all the doors, the hood, and trunk lid close properly. If they don’t, this could indicate the use of replacement parts due to a major accident.
Check to see if the odometer changes miles as the vehicle is driven.
Check the vehicle identification number, or VIN, on the dashboard and see if it matches the VIN on the sticker inside the door of the vehicle. If the numbers do not match, the door may have been replaced.
CarMax’s nationwide team of approximately 1,000 car-buying professionals has appraised more than 9 million cars. These buyers are trained to detect possible signs of vehicle damage and whether a car has been in a major accident. CarMax will not retail any used car that has frame or flood damage or an inaccurate mileage count on the odometer.
ADVICE – READ THIS!
Advice to Sellers and Buyers
First, trust no one. I hate to put it like that, but that’s the way it is, unfortunately. When money is involved, some (but obviously not all) people practice avarice, greed, and deception. Even an inexpensive car costs a lot of money. Even though most people are honest, upright citizens, assume someone is working an angle on you until you know otherwise. Here are some other tips:
You can avoid almost all fraud attempts simply by only doing business with people you meet in person. The last thing a fraud perpetrator wants is someone who can positively ID him or her. Be especially wary of overseas buyers that say that they are in a hurry to do the transaction.
NEVER give out personal or financial information like your S.S. #, your bank account numbers, etc.
NEVER wire money via any wire service (Western Union, MoneyGram, etc.) to anyone for anything – payment, a “refundable deposit” to hold a vehicle, a “good faith” deposit, a down payment, etc. You’re getting scammed.
NEVER assume that you are receiving a truthful description of a vehicle that you are interested in purchasing. Verify condition and mileage. Be aware that services like CarFax are not privy to all title and accident damage in all states. There may be huge gaps in the vehicle’s history on their “clean” reports. Be aware that not all “certified” used or pre-owned program cars from dealers have an accident-free history. Most dealers will not sell cars with salvage titles or cars that they know are “swimmers” (flood cars, i.e. Katrina), “clickers” (odometers rolled back) “smokers” (fire-damaged cars), etc. but some private sellers or small used car lots (i.e., tote-the-note, buy here, pay here) have no hesitation in offering these types of cars for sale.
Fake certified funds instruments, bank drafts, money orders and cashier checks are now very common. Not only will you be out the money you thought were receiving, but your bank or credit union will hold you responsible for the funds they didn’t receive when they tried to redeem the payment instrument. The time between when you deposit the fake and when the bank finds out its fake could be weeks, and BTW, there’s a good chance that you’ll be arrested and booked as an accessory to fraud for depositing that fake payment instrument. You won’t be convicted after everything gets sorted out, but getting arrested in the lobby of your local bank is embarrassing, to say the least. And, you’ll still be out the money.
Any transaction that involves a shipping or escrow service as an integral part of the deal is probably bogus. Fraud perpetrators often offer to “warranty” or “guarantee” a transaction through an escrow company. The service itself is usually a sham company set up by the perpetrator in order to assist in the fraud.
BEWARE of anyone that offers you more than the purchase price via certified check or money order, etc. and says he “trusts you” to send him the difference. The certified check or money order is a fake. You will not get those funds and you will lose whatever additional money you send regarding the difference or the overage.
Be sure to check under signage on the car, such as decals, graphics, and car magnets. These signs may be there to cover up scratches, bumps, and other damage from previous accidents that are easily identified unless covered.
FINALLY, I realize dealers have a bad reputation among a lot of consumers, but much of the previously-described bad stuff that happens to individuals in vehicle transactions just doesn’t happen with dealerships. They’re real businesses, registered in whatever state they’re in, regulated by that state, and are very unlikely to put their business at risk or open to legal liability by practicing fraud like the kinds described above. It just doesn’t usually happen with a dealer. I am not acting as their booster or their apologist as you certainly need to be aware that every dealer wishes to sell every car for as much as possible – but this is nothing new, and I believe that just about everyone is cognizant of this reality. What I’m saying is that these types of brazen, outright fraud I describe above are not something you need to be overly concerned with when you’re conducting a transaction with a dealer. You should keep that in mind.
If you think that you have been a victim or intended victim of fraud, you should contact as many of the following as you deem necessary:
Local police department (non-emergency number)
Local district attorney’s office or state’s attorney office
FTC toll free hotline: 877-FTC-HELP (877-382-4357)
FTC online complaint form (http://www.ftc.gov/)
Internet Fraud Complaint Center (www.ic3.gov/)