Peugeot to Display World’s First Production Diesel-Electric Hybrid
By Chris Haak
Today in 2010, the environmentally-conscious crowd has split into two distinct sets of car-buying preferences. In one camp, the hybrid guys point to their extremely low emissions and fantastic city fuel economy numbers. Plus, the typical hybrid packs a ton of technology into a reasonably-affordable vehicle. Then in the other camp, we find the diesel guys, who claim that better highway mileage and less weight is the way to go, eschewing the complexity of two parallel drivetrains and the environmental cost of batteries that have a finite life. For years, the two camps were like oil and water – they just didn’t mix. There was no production car that combined an efficient clean diesel with a hybrid.
There’s a reason for this too – clean diesels and hybrids individually cost a few thousand dollars, saying nothing for combining the two (and presumably coming up with a powertrain that costs a few more thousand dollars. But now Peugeot’s gone and bucked convention. In about six weeks at the Paris Motor Show, Peugeot is planning to display the diesel-electric hybrid 3008 Hybrid4. This car, destined for series production, will be the first diesel-electric hybrid car on the market. We’re not counting locomotives in that statistic, of course.
The diesel engine produces 163 bhp while the electric motor produces 37 bhp. Peugeot is saying that the maximum combined output is 200 bhp, which of course also happens to be the sum of 163 and 37. Typical gasoline-electric hybrid power outputs cannot be simply added together because of the different torque and horsepower curves that the different propulsion sources have (for instance, when an electric motor hits its power peak, the gasoline engine may not yet have reached its), so it’s not clear whether Peugeot made a mistake on the press release, or whether the diesel’s power and torque peaks occur at the same spot on the curve that the electric motor’s do. Published torque output is 300 Nm from the front (diesel) engine and 200 Nm, with the company claiming 500 Nm combined.
Fuel consumption is claimed to be 74.4 imperial mpg, which is 61.9 US miles per gallon. Keep in mind, however, that although the units convert neatly from imperial gallons to US gallons, the tests are not equivalent. Were this car to be sold in the US – and of course it will never be – its Monroney would not show 61.9 miles per gallon, but rather something closer to 50 miles per gallon – in other words, nearly identical to what the gasoline-electric hybrid Toyota Prius achieves.
The difference is, however, that the 3008 Hybrid4 is more of a multipurpose vehicle, and is larger than the Prius, and carries all wheel drive hardware with electric-only rear wheels, similar to the system employed by Toyota in its all wheel drive hybrid Lexus RX450h. The size and all wheel drive hardware add weight and complexity, but also add capability.
It would be fascinating if an automaker somewhere could apply diesel-electric hybrid technology to a no-holds-barred fuel miser (and skipping the all wheel drive hardware), just to see what kind of eye-popping numbers were possible. Problem is, the car becomes too expensive, and the economic argument for spending the extra money for the doubly-efficient powertrain goes out the window. Regardless, it’s neat to see Peugeot taking the lead on this idea and bringing it to market.
Peugeot’s press release follows below the photo gallery.
THE PEUGEOT 3008 HYBRID4 – THE WORLD’S FIRST DIESEL HYBRID VEHICLE
- Powered by a 2.0 litre 163 bhp HDi diesel engine and a 37bhp electric motor
- Potential 74.4mpg, with 99g/km of CO2
- All electric mode (Zero Emission Vehicle)
- A maximum combined power output of 200 bhp
The Peugeot 3008 Crossover, with HYbrid4 technology, is the first diesel ‘Full Hybrid’ production car in the world
By launching the world’s first diesel full hybrid vehicle – the 3008 HYbrid 4 – Peugeot will be writing a new chapter in motoring history. The combination of a fuel efficient 2.0 litre 163 bhp HDi diesel engine and a 37 bhp electric motor is the optimal combination for a hybrid vehicle. Unlike previous hybrid vehicles which have chosen to use a less fuel efficient petrol engine, the Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4’s diesel engine provides superior Combined Drive Cycle fuel consumption of 74.4mpg, and CO2 emissions of 99g/km.
The use of diesel hybrid technology also brings a range of other benefits:
- High performance combined with excellent driveability
- Freedom and simplicity of use with the possibility of choosing four different operating modes: ZEV (Zero Emission Vehicle), Four-wheel drive, Auto and Sport
- Silent operation, when driving in electric only mode
- Peace of mind offered by the safety inherent in a four-wheel drive vehicle
- Environmental friendliness with CO2 emissions from 99g/km
The Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4 is designed to appeal to demanding, technophile customers who are in search of a rewarding and original vehicle.
In terms of performance, the Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4 benefits from the combined power of the HDi diesel engine and electric motor during acceleration and when an immediate surge of power is required (the “boost” function). The maximum combined power output is 200 bhp, 163 bhp from the 2.0 litre HDi FAP diesel engine and 37 bhp from the electric motor. A maximum torque of 500 Nm is available, split with 300Nm at the front from the HDi diesel engine and 200 Nm at the rear generated by the electric motor.
To manage all the available performance a control selector mounted on the centre console enables the driver to choose between four different operating modes.
- “Auto” mode: the entire system is automatically controlled, including operation of the HDi diesel engine and the electric motor. This provides optimal driving for fuel consumption and dynamic performance
- “ZEV” mode (Zero Emission Vehicle) provides access to an extensive all-electric mode. Activation of the HDi diesel engine is programmed to coincide with only more sustained phases of acceleration. This requires the high-voltage batteries to be sufficiently charged and turns the vehicle into a “city run-around” par excellence due to the total absence of noise and emissions.
- Four-wheel drive mode (4WD) instructs both power trains to operate together as far as possible; the rear wheels are driven by the electric motor and the front wheels by the HDi diesel engine. It offers peace of mind, safety, improved driveability and accentuates the vehicle’s dynamic character. At low speed it allows “all-terrain” capabilities equivalent to those of an SUV. The driver will, therefore, no longer be concerned by the prospect of a slippery track or a snowbound uphill drive to a ski resort
- Sport” mode favours quicker gear changes at higher engine speeds than normal mode. In this mode, the notion of “controlled power” comes into its own, coupling the diesel engine with the electric motor provides more dynamic performance, optimally distributed and transmitted to the road by the four wheel drive for a level of stability and driveability that will appeal to motoring enthusiasts.
With the Peugeot 3008 equipped with HYbrid4 technology, the aim is to appeal to customers who expect both environmental-friendliness and technological sophistication, and also genuine driving enjoyment.
Indeed, as well as the social benefit of the steep reduction in fuel consumption, the level of performance provided by this technology will delight even the most demanding customers in terms of road holding, responsiveness, driveability, peace of mind regardless of road conditions and the possibility of enjoying silent operation in town in the all-electric mode.
HYbrid4 technology brings together Peugeot’s best technologies and experience: HDi diesel engines, electric vehicle knowledge, second-generation Stop & Start and electronically-controlled sequential manual gearboxes.
The “hybrid” power train simply combines an HDi diesel engine and an electric motor. With their exceptional efficiency, HDi diesel engines are thermodynamically more efficient than a petrol engine and offer a 30% reduction in fuel consumption. Clearly the HDi diesel engine is the best internal combustion engine choice.
For the “electric” component, Peugeot has historical expertise in the field of electric vehicles. To date, the 106 Electric, marketed between 1995 and 2003, remains the world’s best selling zero emissions car (in total nearly 10,000 vehicles were produced). At the end of 2010, Peugeot will become the first to launch a latest-generation 100% electric vehicle in Europe, the Peugeot i0n.
Pursuing the common sense approach of capitalising on the best existing components and expertise, it was only natural to use Peugeot’s electronically-controlled 6-speed manual gearbox, not only for its engine management capabilities but also for its ability to optimise fuel consumption. To improve performance even further a second-generation STOP & START system is also used.
The choice of hybrid architecture was also guided by the search for optimal efficiency and consistency. Hybrid technology uses two power trains which can operate alternately or simultaneously:
- The HDi diesel engine operates in its most optimal operating window on longer, out-of-town journeys. A diesel engine still remains the most efficient and versatile choice to power any vehicle
- The electric motor takes over from the HDi diesel engine in phases of lower power demands, particularly when pulling away, driving at low speed and decelerating (for energy recovery). These are precisely the features that characterise urban driving
Changeover from the HDi diesel engine to the electric motor occurs automatically, due to a STOP & START system which places the HDi diesel engine in standby and restarts it as and when conditions require (the operation of the accelerator pedal, low battery charge level, etc…).
The two power sources also complement each other in certain driving conditions (“boost” effect during hard acceleration, or when overtaking another vehicle, for example). The performance of the HYbrid4 is therefore directly comparable to that obtained with a single HDi diesel engine of a much higher capacity, with good levels of responsiveness backed by a real breakthrough in terms of reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions (around 35 % less in the combined cycle for equivalent performance).
The electric motor and its ancillary equipment (inverter, converter, etc) are fitted at the rear of the vehicle. This provides a number of advantages not only in terms of customer benefits and it also helps reduce costs and optimise the production process.
The original layout of the Hybrid4 system allows for the possibility of four-wheel drive. The HDi diesel engine drives the front wheels, while the electric motor (in the rear drive train) drives the rear wheels.
Everything is controlled electronically (“by wire”) and there are no mechanical links between the front and the rear drivetrains. This gives the system many advantages over a “traditional” mechanical system.
- No structural constraints affecting the layout and design within the passenger compartment
- 4×4 and environmental-friendliness are no longer contradicting terms
The installation at the rear, of all the vehicle’s “electrical components”, has further technical and economic benefits.
Firstly, it avoids the need for any major redesign of the vehicle’s engine compartment, while also improving weight distribution. It also leaves intact the possibility of using a range of different capacity engines, for possible future introduction.
Secondly, this architecture is achieved by means of the use of a simple and compact rear module containing the electric motor, its ancillary equipment and also the rear drive train and suspension.
The costs of the rear module are, therefore, reduced because of the technical possibility of deploying the same HYbrid4 technology into different market segments, in different body shapes, etc…, regardless of the type of internal combustion engine used.
A real breakthrough in terms of reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, while improving dynamic performance levels, providing four-wheel drive and an electric only mode, HYbrid4 technology brings a number of benefits without compromises.
Furthermore, the driveability, safety and eco-efficiency of the system are based on simple, reasonable and consistent technological choices.
The Peugeot 3008 Crossover was chosen as the first application of this innovative technology.
The Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4 – In Detail
2.0 litre HDi FAP 163 bhp diesel engine
With a capacity of 1997 cm³, this Euro 5 engine develops a maximum power of 163 bhp at 3750 rpm and a maximum torque of 300Nm at 1580 rpm. To obtain this level of performance it uses Peugeot’s latest generation ECCS (Extreme Conventional Combustion System) combustion chamber design, a variable-geometry low-inertia turbocharger, a high-pressure injection pump allowing a maximum pressure of 2000 bar and solenoid injectors with eight apertures.
Naturally this is combined with the latest generation “octosquare” Eolys additive-enhanced diesel particulate emission filter (FAP) system.
Electronically-controlled 6-speed manual gearbox (BMP6)
The HDi diesel engine is mated to an electronically-controlled manual six-speed sequential gearbox:
- In automatic mode its electronic control helps provide significant savings in fuel consumption, compared to a traditional automatic gearbox or even a traditional manual gearbox
- It offers real driving satisfaction derived from the possibility of choosing the gear change mode at any time – manual or automatic – with either the gear lever or via controls behind the steering wheel
The gear change quality of the gearbox has been enhanced with HYbrid4 technology, as the rear electric motor is activated during gear changes to improve the smoothness of the operation, and sustains drive in between gear changes.
Latest-generation STOP & START system
This system places the HDi diesel engine in standby when the vehicle is at a standstill (at traffic lights, a stop sign or in a traffic jam, etc) and when the vehicle is being driven in electric-only mode. It significantly reduces fuel consumption and emissions in urban driving conditions while also enabling.the HDi diesel engine to be restarted instantly and smoothly, when required.
The “high voltage” STOP & START system has a maximum output of 8 kW and can generate enough energy to supply the power requirements for the rear electric motor if required (four-wheel drive mode).
To ensure a dynamic performance on a par with Peugeot’s reputable road holding standards, the rear electric module also includes a multi-arm rear suspension within which are housed the electric motor and the reduction gearbox.
The ESP system fitted to the 3008 HYbrid4 incorporates an “improved traction control system” (ASR) able to exploit the car’s four-wheel drive capabilities to the full on challenging surfaces. The performance of the system can be enhanced by the fitment of optional 16” ‘Mud & Snow’ tyres.
The synchronous permanent magnet electric motor is located at the rear of the vehicle. It provides a constant 27 bhp, with a peak output of 37 bhp. It generates a constant torque of 100 Nm, or a peak of 200 Nm when necessary.
PTMU (Power Train Management Unit)
The PTMU is the electronic control unit that automatically manages the different operating modes of the HDi diesel engine and the electric motor, programmed to optimise fuel consumption.
An inverter and a converter are used to control the electric power. The inverter controls the torque of the electric motor by regulating the electrical current supplied from the high-voltage battery pack. It operates in a voltage range of between 150 and 270 volts. The converter reduces the 200 volts from the high-voltage battery pack into 12 volts to supply the vehicle’s onboard systems.
On the Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4 all these components have been made as compact as possible to optimise the installation and weight effect in the vehicle.
High-voltage battery pack
The Ni-MH (Nickel Metal Hydride) batteries are located under the boot floor, near the electric motor. The high-voltage battery pack is in addition to the standard 12V battery under the bonnet, which carries on performing its normal duties.
In the medium term, this battery technology remains the most appropriate in terms of cost and industrialisation for vehicles produced in large volumes.
An energy recovery system (the electric motor becomes a generator) enables the kinetic energy created by the vehicle to be transformed into electrical energy to recharge the Ni-MH batteries during deceleration (release of the accelerator pedal and during braking). This recovery system enables the driver to re-deploy the “free” (Kinetic) energy to reduce fuel consumption accordingly.
A 7” 16/9 colour screen or a multi-function display, according to the car’s specification, informs the driver in real time of the operating status of the hybrid power train. It also shows, for a given journey, operating times in different modes and the status of the battery charge.
On the instrument panel the left-hand dial indicates the percentage of power used or recovered during phases of braking or deceleration. Different scales indicate the battery status: Charge, Eco (optimal operating range), Power, Boost (maximum use jointly with the HDi diesel engine).
To develop its HYbrid4 technology, the PSA Peugeot Citroën Group has teamed up with suppliers offering the best expertise in each field. Based on the manufacturer’s technical specifications, BOSCH has provided its expertise with respect to the electric motor, the power electronics, the reversible high-voltage alternator / generator and other systems managing the dialogue between these components, the braking and trajectory correction systems (ABS and ESP). Similarly, SANYO has provided its extensive knowledge in the field of Ni-MH high-voltage batteries.
A distinctive design
The new Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4 is distinguished by its cutting-edge technology, combining responsible driving and driving enjoyment, but also by its specific styling.
At the front, Peugeot’s latest design cues have been adapted to match the 3008’s generous dimensions and to mark a break with existing models. The headlamps now have an integral bar of LEDs providing a daytime lighting function and accentuate the 3008’s appearance. The 3008 HYbrid4 also proudly wears the Marque’s new Lion badge on its bonnet.
At the rear, the rear spoiler has a two-tone finish with a high gloss black section, helping to differentiate it from the other 3008 models in the range, as do the chrome badges which decorate the sides and rear of the car.
Inside its roomy architecture, the driving position bears all the hallmarks of a top-of-the-range vehicle, or even that of an aircraft cockpit. An expansive fascia panel, controls within easy hand’s reach and an ergonomic centre console clearly separate the territory of the “pilot”. Combined with a raised and dominating driving position it has everything in place to reward its drivers and offer a range of new driving experiences not previously found in a conventional hybrid vehicle.
Distinctive materials are deployed throughout to accentuate the Crossover feel and explore new avenues of expression. This is true in particular of the new and specific Guérande & Tramontane two-tone leather finish which subtly combines bright pale grey on the seat cushions with a black finish on the sides of the seats.
The gear lever with its modern and elegant design is a key feature of the HYbrid4 technology. It enhances the technological ambience in the same way as the 7” colour display which provides information on the flow of energy. A specific steering wheel bearing the signature HYbrid4 adds a touch of exclusivity to the car.
Due to its intelligent “Multiflex” interior and clever integration of the batteries and the innovative rear suspension, the Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4 can also be transformed to offer a considerable load capacity under the parcel shelf of 420 litres (362 dm3 VDA), with 66 litres (29 dm3 VDA) available under the boot floor.
The split lower tailgate opens to reveal a boot with a flat floor equipped with longitudinal securing rings that exude quality and strength. From the boot, a rear seat folding system, controlled by switches mounted on the load area side trims, allow the seats in the second row to be folded automatically, ‘as if by magic’.
Combined with the folding front passenger seat, the 3008 HYbrid4 offers a perfectly flat floor from the tailgate to the fascia panel. This frees up a gigantic 1501 litre compartment that is easy to load.
Comfortably seated behind the steering wheel, drivers will note among the equipment at their disposal certain references to the world of aviation.
For example, to ensure that the driver never needs to take an eye off the road ahead, and as in a jet aircraft, essential driving information is projected onto a retractable transparent panel which cleverly extends from the instrument panel. The Head-Up Display system can be adjusted by means of toggle switches.
These switches, located above the centre console, add a further touch of style to the in-car ambience. They also control another original item of equipment – the Distance Alert system. As its name implies, this function helps the driver to keep aware of the safe distance from the vehicle in front, according to the 3008’s speed.
Another item of equipment that helps to ensure maximum driving convenience is the Parallel Park Assist (PPA). This system assesses the size of a space during parking manoeuvres and determines the possibility of parking in it.
Similarly, the electric handbrake coupled with the Hill Assist function, helps the driver during manoeuvres but also optimises the interior space within the vehicle.
Finally, a latest-generation satellite navigation system helps to guide users on their travels.
The Peugeot Connect 3-D Media Navigation (NG4) includes all the benefits of the Marque’s existing satellite navigation systems. These include a juke-box function, linked to a hard disc, Peugeot Connect services, GSM function, a USB connector, a DVD player, a Bluetooth® system and a display which shows specific buildings in full 3D.
The Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4 is a Crossover with an exceptional technological content offering unique versatility and safety, unrivalled driving enjoyment and CO2 emissions of a very low level. Peugeot’s choice of the diesel hybrid demonstrates that it is possible to combine uncompromising environmental demands with driving experiences not previously available in a hybrid vehicle.
The 3008 HYbrid4 will be produced in France (in Sochaux and Mulhouse) and marketed in the spring of 2011 in Europe.